Bug detection on google devices

What are the dangers of Google spying and how to get rid of it

What are the risks of Google spying on government officials and ordinary users, and what steps to take to get rid of it?

In the article “How Google spies on users. KGB never dreamed” “Economic truth” already wrote about the fact that Google collects detailed information about the actions of each user through the online applications Gmail, Search, YouTube, Maps, as well as the browser Chrome and the operating system Android.

On the one hand, such activities allow the company to automatically adjust online services to the unique needs of each person.

On the other hand. it raises the price of the damage a user may suffer from a possible leak of his or her personal data.

The ES provides examples of when Google intentionally, or through its own mistakes, disclosed users’ personal information, and publishes instructions on how to make sure Google knows as little about you as possible.


Dear readers, authors, colleagues, friends!

Wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year 2021!

May 2021 bring health, faith in the future, and new opportunities and perspectives!

We wish you family happiness and prosperity, new achievements, interesting events and implementation of plans!

Thank you for your cooperation and we hope to continue it next year!

Editorial staff and editorial staff of magazines

“Measuring Technology” and “Metrology.”.

Tags: new year 2020, Christmas, congratulations, measuring technique magazine, metrology magazine

Editorial staff temporarily shifted to remote work. Work continues in full swing.

Please contact by email for any questions. We will surely answer you.

“MetrolExpo-2020: Acceptance of applications for the largest instrument-making forum has started

Registration for the annual international forum and exhibition MetroExpo-2020 has started. The event will be held from May 20 to 22, 2020 and for the first time at the Crocus Expo venue.

The annual forum and exhibition of metrological technique for the World Metrology Day are the latest developments in the field of instrumentation. Unique equipment, technologies and services will be presented by scientific institutes and standardization, metrology and testing centers of Rosstandart from all over Russia as well as leading domestic and foreign enterprises.

Applications for participation should be sent till March, 1, 2020 by e-mail: forum2020@vniims.ru. For more information about the event, please visit the official VNIIMS website www.vniims.ru or by phone (495) 437-40-61.

Tags: metrolEXPO, metrolEXPO, metrolEXPO-2020, metrology, forum, exhibition, measuring instruments, Crocus Expo

Wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

Let the coming 2020 will bring peace, joy and prosperity, will add strength and energy, will open new perspectives!

We wish you family happiness and prosperity, bright thoughts and new achievements, interesting events and implementation of your plans!

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Editorial staff of “Measuring technique” journals

About magazine

  • The magazine was founded in 1939.
  • Since 1969. is published with the “Metrology” supplement
  • Periodicity of issue: magazine. 12 issues per year, supplement. 4 issues per year
  • Journals “Measuring Instruments” and “Metrology” are peer-reviewed journals
  • Publications in journals are free for authors
  • “Measuring Technology” is included in the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) on the platform Web of Science
  • RSCI Impact Factor: “Measurement Engineering” 0.508 (2018), “Metrology” 0.216 (2018);
  • “Measuring Technology” and “Metrology” are included in the VAK-approved list of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results for the degree of candidate of sciences, for the degree of doctor of sciences should be published.
  • Since 1958. “Measurement Techniques” has a translated version of “Measurement Techniques”; translation, publication and distribution are carried out by Springer Publishers
  • Impact Factor: 0.390 (2017), Journal Citation Reports Thomson Reuters
  • The translated version of Measuring Techniques, which also includes selected articles from the Metrology supplement, is indexed in international scientometric databases such as the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, etc.

How to avoid the error

Let’s take a look at preventative steps to keep your phone from crashing.

1.Check only known regions. If you are satisfied with stock functionality, specify your real country.

2.Regularly clean your phone of debris and check for viruses.

3.Do not overload memory. Download apps you will use on a daily basis.

4.Read reviews of other users before you install a new update. Users always share their opinions about newer builds in discussions on thematic forums.

5.Be sure to link your phone number to your Mi account. You can also specify your email address as a backup.

6.Download modified versions of Mi Home. That will work correctly outside of China.

7.Create backups with built-in tool. Do not use little-known third-party apps for this purpose. Transfer backup file to your computer at once.

We figured out how to fix “Device Search is unexpectedly closed” error on Xiaomi. Write in Комментарии и мнения владельцев, was this article useful?

Error detection in google devices

For further exposition, we will need the notion of Hemming code distance. For two binary words, the Hemming code distance is the number of digits in which the words differ. So, for words 11011 and 10110 code distance d = 3, because these words differ in three digits (the first, third and fourth).

Let the used words have m digits. You can use all 2 possible combinations from 00. 0 to 11. 1. Then for each word we will find other words which differ from the given one in no more than one bit. For example, for some word 1101 you can find the following words: 0101, differing only in the fourth digit; 1001, differing only in the third digit, etc.д. Thus, the minimum code distance d = 1. It is impossible to detect errors in such words. For example, if a word N = 1101 was transmitted and N = 0101 was received, it is impossible to find any signs of an error in the received word (after all a word N = 0101 could be also transmitted). To be able to detect single errors (errors occurring on at most one bit of the word), the minimum code distance must satisfy the condition d ≥ 2. This condition requires that any pair of used words differ from each other by at least two digits. In this case, if an error occurs, it forms a combination of numbers that is not used to represent words, i.e.е. forms the so-called forbidden combination.

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To obtain d = 2, simply add one additional digit, called the check digit, to words using any combination of m information binary digits. At that the value of the control digit is chosen so that the total number of units in the word is even. For example:

In the first of the given examples the number of information part is even (8), so the check digit should contain 0. In the second example the number of units in the information part of the word is odd (7), so for the total number of units in the word to be even, the check digit must contain 1. This method introduces into all words a certain feature. the parity of the number of units. Accepted words are checked for the presence of this feature, and if it turns out to be broken (i.e.е. it is found that the number of units contained in the word digits is odd), it is decided that the word contains an error.

This method allows to find the error. But with its help it is impossible to determine which digit of the word contains an error, i.e.е. it cannot be corrected. In addition, this method cannot detect errors of even multiplicity, t.е. errors in two, four, etc. at the same time.д. bits since such an even number of errors does not break the evenness of the number of ones in the word bits. However, along with single errors, errors occurring simultaneously in any odd number of digits can be detected.

In practice the oddness code is often used instead of the parity code, i.e.е. the digit of the check digit is chosen such that the total number of ones in the word bits is odd. In this case, if there is, for example, a break in line, it will be detected, because the received words will have 0 in all digits and the principle of odd number of ones will be violated.

Consider the circuits that perform the parity (odd parity) check. The parity check involves adding modulo 2 digits of the word bits. If a. a, a are digits, the result of parity check will be defined by expression p = a ± a ± a ±, ± a. If p = 0, then the number of bits in the word is even, otherwise it’s odd.

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This operation is simplest when the controlled word is transmitted in sequential form. The summation in this case can be performed in the sequence p =. ((a ± a ) ± a ) ±. ± а. To the result of summing p of the first digits the digit of the next incoming digit (i 1) is added, the result of summing (i 1) of the digits p = p ± a. and so on, until the digits of all digits.

for the operation p = p ± a (tab. 1) it is visible, that log.0 must not change the state of the summing device (p = p ), log.1 sets the device to a new state (p = ). This logic corresponds to the operation of a trigger with a counter input (Fig.1).

Really, let the trigger was preliminarily set to state 0 after which its synchronizing input began to receive logic levels corresponding to the digits of the controlled word. In this case, the first log.1 will move the trigger to state 1, the second log. 1 will return the trigger to state 0 and t.д. Consequently, after supplying even number of units the trigger will be in the state p = 0; after supplying odd number of units the trigger will be in the state p = 1.

If the digits of the controlled word are transferred in parallel form, the parity check sequence can be as follows:

According to this expression for finding p, first the digits of the controlled word digits are added modulo 2, then the results are also added in pairs, and so on.д.

This principle of calculating p is used in the parity check scheme in Fig.2.

The digits of the discharges (and their inversions) go to the elements inputs (Fig.2 denoted by =1) of the first tier of the scheme, in which they are added in pairs modulo 2. The results obtained are added in pairs to the elements of the second tier and t.д.

The result of the parity check is formed at the output of the senior tier element. Each of the circuit elements implements the following logical function:

The purpose of the CRC error detection circuit is to detect switching of any of the configuration memory bits of Stratix or Cyclone series devices. When using this scheme, you can continuously check the integrity of the data in the configuration memory.

1 User mode. is the mode that the FPGA enters after configuration and initialization is complete. In this mode, it performs user-defined functions (translator’s note).

A lady’s purse is the grave of male illusions. Helen Rowlandesche